Primary Economic Industry

March 30, 2021

Ashkan Sajjadi
Reading Time: 5 Minutes

AGRICULTURE AND ANIMAL HUSBANDRY

Fars Province is one of the most diverse climates and most biodiversity in terms of natural resources and livestock and agriculture. 

In Fars province, under the influence of topographic characteristics, three distinct climatic zones have emerged. The first is the northern, northwest, and western mountainous region, characterized by cold winters and significant vegetation. The rainfall is reported to be about 400 to 600 millimeters a year. The second region is the central area, with a relatively moderate climate combined with rainfall in the winter and hot and dry weather during summer. The climate in the area is slightly different from the west and northwest due to the relative decline of the altitude. The rainfall in this area is between 200 and 400 millimeters per year, and the cities of Shiraz, Fasa, Marvdasht, Firuzabad and Kazerun are located in this region.The third and final region of the south and southeast is less than that of spring and autumn [K1] due to a decreasing altitude and width of the gates and location of the mountains. The weather in this area is moderate in the winter and very hot during summer.  [K1]What is less than what?

Three different air masses affect the province of Fars, the first being the Mediterranean mass that originates from the Mediterranean Sea, traveling all the way to Zagros Mountains, causing snowstorms (in the northern and northwestern regions of the country) and rain.The second is the Sudanese tundra, formed in the winter from the center of the sub-Saharan subzone, which affects Fars province with its activation on the Red Sea and causes rainfall in most parts of the province. The third is Saudi Arabia's hot air mass, blowing from the Arabian Peninsula to Fars province in the summer and causing heat.

Fars province plains consist of alluvial deposits. These plains can be divided into two parts: the Middle region and the western region, as well as the northern and eastern parts, depending on their geographical location. In the middle and eastern parts of the plains there are very fertile and ready for agricultural utilization.

The vegetation of Fars province is composed of forest trees and medicinal and industrial plants. Among the most important tree species in this province are almonds, oaks and some medicinal and industrial herbs, such as sweet licorice, gooseberry, kotare, anguishes and some other species. Protected areas of Fars province are the site of many vegetation species in the region. Bamou National Park, located outside the city of Shiraz, is very rich in vegetation and has been identified and sampled for over 280 plant species.

The soil of Shiraz plain, which is created from the sediments of the surrounding mountains, is very fertile, and the land around the city is under cultivation all year round, producing all kinds of summer and winter crops such as wheat, barley, beans, rice, varieties of vegetables, watermelons, melons, cantaloupe and forages such as clover and alfalfa. Shiraz’s soil is also suitable for cultivating many types of decorative flowers, and is reason for the beauty of the city.

One of the most useful herbs that is found in the mountainous areas of Shiraz, is called gong (derived from the word gum). Mountain almonds (the local term is Bukhor ), lacquer (locally called "gharak"), are also among the medicinal plants found in the plains of Shiraz, especially around the atmosphere . In addition to the various of flowers and groves that grow in different seasons in Shiraz, there are other herbs such as shrine and gooseberry in this area that are used in the preparation of traditional substances. As we know, Shiraz's fragrances have been famous since ancient times. 

The gardens of the suburbs of Shiraz have a variety of cold-weather trees such as apples, pears, peaches, almonds and walnuts in addition to shady and ornamental trees such as chinar, pine and cedar and willow. Citrus trees grow in the eastern and northern parts where the weather is milder.

Fars province has 2. 2 million hectares of forests, 1.2 million hectares of which are infertile or semi-fertile. The rest are fertile and have rich pastures. This forest area covers about 17.5 percent of the province.

Among the most dominant plant species in Fars province are oak, baneh, hawthorn, wild pear, aras (mountain cedar tree), mountain almond and wild figs.

The agricultural sector in Fars province, which accounts for a major share of gross national products, has one of the most important roles in Iran's production, employment and security in the production of food. Fars is one of the top three regions of the country in terms of the production of certain agricultural products such as cereals and citrus.

Currently, among the most important agricultural products in Fars province, we can mention wheat, barley, rice, corn, cotton, sugar beet, oilseed, potato, onion, tomato, dates, pomegranate, and gingerbread products and forage crops. Fars holds the first place in the country for the production of wheat, corn, oilseeds and tomatoes, and the third place for herbal products and second-hand forage, barley, rice, cotton, sugar beet, potatoes and onions.

Thanks to pastures and the suitable climate, agriculture, which forms raw material for animal food, livestock and poultry farming in the province is one of the most promising jobs.

In the field of livestock products, Fars province came in first in the production of red meat in 2013, fourth in milk and honey production, third in chicken production and fifth in egg production.

Mines  

Seven-hundred and fifty six mines have been discovered in Fars.Thirty-seven different types of minerals have been identified in the province, including 20 materials such as limestone, marl, gypsum, marble, Chinese stone, fireclay, industrial soil, blue and rock salt, silica, quartzite, manganese, lead, Zinc, chromite, barite, iron ore, copper, granite, nickel and travertine.

Fars province also holds the second rank in the production of decorative stones in Iran. In general, 20% of Iranian decorative stones are produced in Fars. The three-hundred and fifty quarry units in Fars process about 80% of the extraction of the province. Amongst the stones extracted, marble and Chinese stone account for 15% of the total amount of decorative stones in the province.

Fars province is a rich mineral resource area and one of the most prominent regions of the country in terms of refractories. Fars is the richest region of the country in terms of refractory materials. In addition, the province has good iron reserves. Reserves such as manganese, copper, chromite and even cobalt are also mined. Evaporative mines are found in the province as well. There are good salt domes in Fars that can have evaporation deposits in the area. Therefore, the province is rich in terms of rocky potash, salt domes and sulfur. Nearly 18 million tons of minerals are mined annually in Fars. The province has more than 2 billion and 368 million tons of permanent reserves. Fars province is a rich mineral resource area and one of the most prominent regions of the country in terms of refractories. Fars is the richest region of the country in terms of refractory materials. In addition, the province has good iron reserves. Reserves such as manganese, copper, chromite and even cobalt are also mined. Evaporative mines are found in the province as well. There are good salt domes in Fars that can have evaporation deposits in the area. Therefore, the province is rich in terms of rocky potash, salt domes and sulfur. Nearly 18 million tons of minerals are mined annually in Fars. The province has more than 2 billion and 368 million tons of permanent reserves.

Oil and Gas

Even though there are rich oil and gas reservoirs in Fars province, they cannot reach their full potential due to a lack of cooperation with other countries.

Eight development oil wells are located in Sarvestan, Saadatabad and Khesht in Fars province, and 42 million euros are considered for the drilling of these wells. The first oil wells drilled in Fars’s “Sefid Baghoon” have run out.

Gas storage in Halgan Square in Fars province is 12.3 trillion cubic feet, and storage of gas condensates in the field is 249 million barrels. White gas reservoirs of Sefid Zakoor, Sefid Baghoon, Dey , Halgan and several other fields are ready for development in this area and can form a gas field in the region.

Fars province fields are completely independent in terms of geological structure. Among the major refineries of this province, are Shiraz Refinery and Persian Gas Refinery in the city of Mehr.

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